Mushroom Cap Shapes
The mushroom cap or pileus (plural: pilei) comes in many distinct shapes. Below you'll find extensive nomenclature mycologists use to describe the various morphology of the pileus. Some of the forms are very similar and only exhibit subtle differences. Understanding the nuance between cap shapes will significantly benefit your ability to identify fungal species accurately. Adjectives such as acutely and obtusely help describe the magnitude of the shape.
The shape of the pileus can change as the fruiting body matures, so it is essential to document the specimen's age when identifying it. Additionally, pay attention to the surface texture, margins (edge), odor, size, viscosity, color, and other unique features.
Beneath the pileus, you'll find the hymenium, the fertile spore-bearing tissue layer of the mushroom. The hymenium can come in many forms, such as gills, pores, or teeth.
A rounded curve; bowl-shaped.
Cushion-shaped. A cap that is convex and tall.
Egg-shaped. Also referred to as hemispherical or Hemispheric.
Half-egg shaped; Taller than a typical convex cap, but shorter than a cylindric cap.
Bullet-shaped; Tall, clyinder-shaped and convex.
Cone-Shaped. Acute and obtuse are used to describe the sharpness of the apex.
Umbonate with a pointy conical apex; Witch-hat shaped. also known as eye-tooth.
Having a centralized knob or protrusion.
Umbonate with a nipple-like bump.
a navel-like depression in the center.
Saucer-shaped; The center is lower than the cap margin.
Oyster-shaped; Bivalve shell-shaped