Mushroom Cap Shapes

The mushroom cap or pileus (plural: pilei) comes in many distinct shapes. Below you'll find extensive nomenclature mycologists use to describe the various morphology of the pileus. Some of the forms are very similar and only exhibit subtle differences. Understanding the nuance between cap shapes will significantly benefit your ability to identify fungal species accurately. Adjectives such as acutely and obtusely help describe the magnitude of the shape.

The shape of the pileus can change as the fruiting body matures, so it is essential to document the specimen's age when identifying it. Additionally, pay attention to the surface texture, margins (edge), odor, size, viscosity, color, and other unique features.

Beneath the pileus, you'll find the hymenium, the fertile spore-bearing tissue layer of the mushroom. The hymenium can come in many forms, such as gills, pores, or teeth.

Convex

Convex Mushroom Cap Shape

A rounded curve; bowl-shaped.

Pulvinate

Pulvinate Mushroom Cap Shape

Cushion-shaped. A cap that is convex and tall.

Ovoid

Ovoid Mushroom Cap Shape

Egg-shaped. Also referred to as hemispherical or Hemispheric.

Parabolic

Parabolic Mushroom Cap Shape

Half-egg shaped; Taller than a typical convex cap, but shorter than a cylindric cap.

Cylindric

Mushroom Cap Shape

Bullet-shaped; Tall, clyinder-shaped and convex.

Conical

Conical Mushroom Cap Shape

Cone-Shaped. Acute and obtuse are used to describe the sharpness of the apex.

Cuspidate

Cuspidate Mushroom Cap Shape

Umbonate with a pointy conical apex; Witch-hat shaped. also known as eye-tooth.

Campanulate

Campanulate Mushroom Cap Shape

Bell-shaped.

Umbonate

Umbonate Mushroom Cap Shape

Having a centralized knob or protrusion.

Papillate

Papillate Mushroom Cap Shape

Umbonate with a nipple-like bump.

Plane

Plane Mushroom Cap Shape

Flat

Umbilicate

Umbilicate Mushroom Cap Shape

a navel-like depression in the center.

Depressed

Depressed Mushroom Cap Shape

Saucer-shaped; The center is lower than the cap margin.

Infunibuliform

Infunibuliform Mushroom Cap Shape

Funnel-shaped.

Conchate

Mushroom Cap Shape

Oyster-shaped; Bivalve shell-shaped